The AND function is a computer program that you run from a worksheet cell formula. Its purpose is to calculate TRUE or FALSE based upon a set of criteria (conditions) that you provide it. If all criteria are TRUE then AND returns TRUE, if one criterion is FALSE then it returns FALSE. You run the AND function by typing its name in a formula then followed by the information it is suppose to use. The AND worksheet function is generally used to evaluate multiple TRUE/FALSE questions at once. It can be used by itself in a formula or nested inside another function that requires a TRUE/FALSE answer for one of its arguments. The AND worksheet function is used by itself quite often as a flag, usually evaluating worksheet data organized in a table indicating whether a row meets certain requirements. For example, say you have a row of data on the worksheet and you wanted to know if that row had a date equal to some value and a rep equal to some name. You could use the AND function to evaluate those conditions and return a TRUE/FALSE in a column. You could then use Excel's AutoFilter to filter on the TRUE/FALSE values in that column. The AND function is also commonly nested as the first argument to the IF function providing it the capability to evaluate multiple conditions at once. It is a key player in developing worksheets that can think for themselves.

Whenever you type a formula in a worksheet cell, this is called syntax or grammar. The general AND function syntax has a format like this when you type it in a worksheet cell:

=AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)

Where logical1, [logical2], ...is called the function argument list. Remember, you are running a computer program at this point so the program needs information to operate and that is why there is an argument list. When you see an argument list and you see square brackets [ ] around the argument name, this means the argument is optional and you do not have to include it when typing unless you need it. So for the syntax above, you need to include 1 argument for the AND function when typing it in a worksheet cell formula in order for it to calculate correctly. What argument value can be used is discussed below. Remember functions expect certain things in their argument lists, if you do not put the correct information in the list they will generate an error when run.

- logical1, [logical2], ...: These are formulas that evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. They can be developed from a combination of cell references, ranges, relational operators (<,>,<=,>=,<>,=) and functions like the IS, AND, OR functions.

Since the AND function is a computer program, it runs when you press Enter to enter the formula that contains it. If any of the arguments are wrong, the function will return an error.

When typing the AND function in a worksheet cell formula, you need to replace the logical argument with something that generates TRUE/FALSE. Some typical arguments you can use are:

Argument Type | Cell Formula | Example Explanation |

Cell Reference | = AND( A1>=1, A1<=3 ) | AND determines if the values calculated by the formulas A1>=1 and A1<=5 are TRUE returning TRUE if both are TRUE |

Nested Functions | =AND( ISBLANK(A1), ISBLANK(A2) ) | AND determines if the values calculated by the formulas ISBLANK(A1) and ISBLANK(A2) are TRUE returning TRUE if both are TRUE. Use the IS functions to determine the values of a cell like, blank, number, text, error...etc * |

Formulas | =AND( B6*B7>=400, B6*B7<=800 ) | AND determines if the values calculated by the formulas B6*B7>=400 and B6*B7<=800 are TRUE returning TRUE if both are TRUE |

Cell and Range Names | =AND(ISERROR(Sub), ISERROR(Tx)) | AND determines if the values calculated by the formulas ISERROR(Sub) and ISERROR(Tx) are TRUE returning TRUE if both are TRUE. Use the IS functions to determine the values of a cell like, blank, number, text, error...etc. * |

* It is possible to name a cell or group of cells on a worksheet and use that name in place of a range reference or cell reference. Consult Excel help on how to name a cell.

The worksheet seen below contains some typical worksheet formulas that run the AND worksheet function. Pay close attention to the argument list and the syntax used to write the formula.

A | B | C | |

1 | 1 | 2 | |

2 | Expense | = IF( AND( B1=>1, B1<=5 ), 600, 0) | Typical use of the AND function is to find if a value lies within a range of values like looking at some interval. The IF function takes this result and either outputs 600 or 0 if the criterion is met |

- The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or in arrays or references that contain logical values.
- If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored.
- If the specified range contains no logical values, AND returns the #VALUE! error value.

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